Initially, Marx, who did “not actually originate anything but merely streamlined Talmudism for Gentile Consumption,” opposed mass demonstrations but through his mentor’s guidance, he soon adapted. In the fall of 1844, in Paris, Moses Hess introduced Marx to Friedrich Engels, which began a lengthy collaboration. Hess formulated the communist ideology, including the abolition of all personal property. He advocated class warfare as a method of preventing mutual cooperation. He hoped to use Judaism, racism and the class struggle to initiate a revolution and maintained that socialism was akin to internationalism, as socialists have no homeland and do not acknowledge nationality. However, he stated, this did not apply to Jews as he believed that internationalism operated in the best interests of Judaism. He wrote: “Whoever denies Jewish nationalism is not only an apostate, a renegade in the religious sense, but also a traitor to his people and to his family.”
Moses Hess, in Red Catechism for the German People, wrote, “The socialist revolution is my religion.” He felt that the Rothschild’s red family banner should signal the struggle of the revolution or as he implied elsewhere, the struggle of the Judaists. Hess maintained that Judaism would evolve into a godless socialist, revolutionary ideology. In an 1845 article, About the Monetary System, He said that the Jew’s function was to change mankind into a savage animal. Marx and Engels advocated many of his ideas and Theodor Herzl endorsed and advanced Hess’ Zionist dogma in the 1890s. Levi Baruch stressed that the Jews should retain Judaism so that other Jews would not view them as traitors. In earlier centuries, in Spain, some Jews pretended to convert to Christianity to gain access to important government and church positions. Baruch promoted this as a way for “revolutionary Jews” to conceal their Judaism. When ensconced in these administrative positions, they could enact laws prohibiting private property thus allowing vast riches to fall into their hands fulfilling the Talmud mandate that they would control the world’s riches. According to Baruch, Jews would control the world, merge the races, abolish borders, eliminate the royal families and establish the Zionist state.
Hess, an early advocate of socialism, helped found Zionism. He lived in Paris when the revolution began in 1848 and then fled to Belgium and then Switzerland. He was a correspondent for the Rheinische Zeitung, an extremist newspaper for which Marx also worked. He was friends with both Marx and Engels who he converted to Communism. Hess promoted Jewish assimilation into the Universalist Socialist movement and helped to transform Hegelian dialectical idealism into the dialectical materialism of Marxism, and provided the basis for many of Marx’s ideas, such as religion functioning as the “opiate of the people.”
Hess was also close to Fritz Anneke, Carl Schurz and his wife Mathilde F. Anneke and Andreas Gottschalk and others associated with the Communist Club in Cologne. Some of his friends, Anneke, Schurz and his wife Mathilde, and Gottschalk, immigrated to America but Hess remained in Europe and lived in Germany (1861-1863), where he experienced anti-Semitism. While in Germany, he reverted to Judaism and published Rome and Jerusalem. He acknowledged the surge of Italian nationalism, considered the idea of Jewish nationalism and advocated the formation of a socialist state in Palestine, as a response to the anti-Semitism prevailing in some Europe countries. Most German Jews were open to assimilation and ignored his ideas.
Dr. Leon Pinsker (Judah L. Pinsker) popularized nationalism when he wrote Auto-Emancipation, An Appeal to His People by a Russian Jew, a non-passive strategy for future Jewish action. He wrote it in German and published it anonymously on January 1, 1882. The Zionist movement began to take shape in the late nineteenth century. Theodor Herzl read Rome and Jerusalem and later admitted that he would not have written The Jewish State if he had known about that book earlier. Vladimir Jabotinsky claimed that Hess was one of the individuals responsible for the Balfour Declaration, along with Herzl, Rothschild and Pinsker. In 1961, officials re-interred Hess’ body from the Jewish cemetery in Cologne to the Kinneret Cemetery in Israel.
In addition to emigration, the pogroms in southern Russia generated the idea of Jewish nationalism and an abandonment of the assimilation ideology that most Eastern European Jews had always accepted. The pogroms (1881-1884) prompted the consolidation of other methods of Jewish nationalism, which increased the Zionist Movement. Moshe L. Lilienblum, of Odessa, wrote an article, Obshcheyevreiski Vopros I Palestina, encouraging Jewish settlement in Palestine as the only solution of the Jewish problem.
In his pamphlet, a response to the pogroms, Dr. Pinsker wrote, “Of course, the establishment of a Jewish refuge cannot come about without the support of the respective governments. In order to obtain the latter and to insure the perpetual existence of a refuge, the molders of our national regeneration must proceed with caution and perseverance. What we seek is at bottom (least) neither new nor dangerous to anyone. Instead of the many refuges which we have always been accustomed to seek, we would fain have one single refuge, the existence of which, however, would have to be politically assured. Let ‘Now or never’ be our watchword.”
The Jewish Religion: Its Influence Today, formerly titled The Plot Against Christianity by Elizabeth Dilling, Noontide Press, Newport Beach, California, 1983, p. 121
Ibid, pp. 68-70
Auto-Emancipation by Leon Pinsker, 1882, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/pinsker.html